Table 1

Power analysis: supply of certified planting material and licensing.

Analyse des relations de pouvoir pour la fourniture de matériel végétal certifié. Situation initiale (2012) et situation après intervention de la plate-forme d’innovation (2013).

The initial situation (2012)
Power over
Researchers: developing and selling hybrid seedlings and responsible for certifying seedling quality
Power to
Nursery holders: serving small farmers but not well spread through the production zone & with opportunities for cheating customers; can choose to become licensed
Extension agents: can corrupt the system by encouraging or ignoring sales of inferior material
Power with
Extension agents (supporting or corrupting the seed system, together with unauthorised nurseries, and farmers seeking cheap seedlings)
Power within
The situation following actions taken by IP members (2013)
Power over
CRA-PP researcher: monitors nursery practices; confers or withdraws annual certificate of authorised nurseries, certifies seedling quality
CRA-PP: licensing authority, ensures supply of certified seedlings, develops best practices
Power to
IPs: transform the situation
Micro-finance organisations and input dealers: promote and extend good practices
Nursery holders: choose to become licensed, influence the seedling market
FBOs: encourage farmers to buy only from licensed nurseries
Power with
Extension agents: under pressure from CBOs, FBOs and NGOs comply with the new norms for best practice and work with IPs to support integrity of the new seed system
IP members: act with other stakeholders to introduce and monitor the licensing system
Power within
Champions within and outside IP: raise awareness of importance of maintaining the integrity of the seed system

FBO: farmer based organisation; CBO: consumer based organisation; NGO: non-governmental organisation.

Source: IP members’ analyses of TGPI data.

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