Table 1

Some agricultural practices have been assessed for their performance in reducing nitrous oxides, methane and CO2 emissions and storing C in soils or biomass ; main options are considered here, in a qualitative way. N20 can be reduced by more legumes in crop rotations and a better adjustment of N fertilization; C storage can be increased by no-till, residue management, introduction of cover crops, and more trees in agrosystems (from Pellerin et al., 2014).

Certaines pratiques agricoles ont été évaluées quant à leur capacité à réduire les émissions de protoxyde d'azote (N20), de méthane (CH4) et de gaz carbonique (CO2) et à stocker du carbone dans les sols et la biomasse ; les principales options sont considérées ici. Les émissions de N20 peuvent être réduites par une plus forte introduction de légumineuses dans la rotation et par un ajustement de la fertilisation azotée ; le stockage du carbone peut augmenter via le non-travail du sol, la gestion des résidus de culture, l'introduction de cultures intermédiaires, et la plantation d'arbres dans les agrosystèmes (d'après Pellerin et al., 2014).

Levers Technical options Expected effect
N fertilization More legumes in crop rotations
Adjust N mineral fertilizer application rates, make better use of organic fertilizer, adjust application dates, use nitrification inhibitors, incorporate fertilizers (to reduce losses)
↘ N2O
Soil tillage Reduce tillage (direct seeding, occasional tillage, surface tillage) ↘ CO2
↗ C storage
Cover crops and residue management More cover crops in arable cropping systems, in vineyards and orchards
Grass buffer strips
↗ C storage
↘ N2O
Agroforestry and hedges Agroforestry
Hedges around fields
↗ C storage
Paddy rice management Promote aeration of rice-growing soil to reduce fermentation reactions: reduce the depth of paddy fields, empty them several times per year ↘ CH4

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