Table 2

Technical options that could be combined to reduce the vulnerability of cropping systems and take advantage of new cropping opportunities. Different strategies can be applied concerning water and heat stresses: escape, avoidance (via crop rationing), tolerance, attenuation, resource conservation, resilience (recovery).

Options techniques qui pourraient être combinées pour réduire la vulnérabilité des systèmes de culture et tirer parti des opportunités offertes par le changement climatique. Plusieurs stratégies peuvent être mises en œuvre pour faire face aux stress hydriques et thermiques : l'esquive, l'évitement (via le rationnement végétatif), la tolérance, l'atténuation, la conservation des ressources, la résilience (récupération).

Levers Technical options
Crop species & varieties (stress escape) more appropriate thermal time and vernalization requirements
  (stress tolerance) increased tolerance to heat shock, drought, waterlogging, low temperature, emergent pests and diseases…
  (stress avoidance) lower water needs, optimal water use pattern
Crop management (escape) shifting sowing date to escape water and thermal stresses
  (avoidance) nutrient applications, planting density and spatial arrangements (e.g. skip row) adjusted to precipitation patterns and yield goals
  (attenuation) supplementary/deficit irrigation if available
  (conservation) soil tillage and residue management to maximize soil water storage, reduce evaporation, runoff and erosion
Cropping pattern Diversify crops and cultivars to increase resilience (rotation, landscape); variety mixtures and intercropping; agroforestry; flexible systems; double and relay cropping
Information and decision system Use seasonal weather forecasting; model-based decision support systems (DSS)

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