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Table 1

Patterns of sustainability based on raw values of the strategic indicators (variables).

Profils de durabilité basés sur les valeurs brutes des indicateurs stratégiques (variables).

Variables Pattern of sustainability


1 (n = 77) 2 (n = 89) 3 (n = 84) 4 (n = 60) 5 (n = 45)
(1) Own land per family worker (m2) 339 ± 557b 385 ± 829b 766 ± 1876ab 1493 ± 3143a 1038 ± 1201ab
(2) Herd size per family worker (AU) 1.15 ± 0.56c 1.3 ± 0.65c 2.12 ± 0.91b 4.7 ± 3.52a 2.87 ± 2.84b
(3) Pluriactivity (%)
   Dairy business 59 ± 21b 86 ± 29a 82 ± 31a 89 ± 30a 65 ± 21b
   Crop 17 ± 21a 5 ± 21b 9 ± 24ab 5 ± 22b 16 ± 20ab
   Off farm 25 ± 24a 9 ± 23bc 9 ± 23bc 6 ± 22c 20 ± 22ab
(4) Total income per family worker (US$ per year) 1268 ± 730b 812 ± 585b 1142 ± 975b 3056 ± 3036a 2683 ± 2181a
(5) Farmers want their children to continue dairy business (farms)
   No 6 0 42 4 0
   Up to the children 21 79 0 17 24
   Yes 50 10 42 39 21
(6) Waste evacuation to the river/surrounding area (farms)
   All waste 9 40 26 9 0
   Partly 43 34 41 22 11
   None 25 15 17 29 34

Means in the same column with a different superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05); NS not significant. Source: Survey (2015).

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