Open Access

Table 1

Processes and examples of agricultural crop protection practices sorted by E-S-R framework category.

Processus et exemples de pratiques de protection des cultures classés selon les catégories du cadre conceptuel E-S-R.

E-S-R positioning Process* Examples
Conventional/efficiency (E) Intensive use of synthetic inputs (particularly pesticides) and move towards a more rational use of the same to improve efficiency Application of fungicide to crop fields/orchards
Fungicide resistance management
Bioremediation to limit accumulation of azole fungicides in soil
Substitution (S) Substitution of synthetic pesticides with non-synthetic pesticides, or substitution of other levers (e.g. mechanical) for the same purpose Entomopathogenic fungi for biological pest control
Bat guano for phytopathogenic nematode control
Redesign (R) Redesign of the entire system as an agro-ecosystem based on ecological processes rather than external inputs On farm-produced manure and plant waste compost for phytopathogenic nematode control

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