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Table 3

Main references demonstrating impacts of the use of agricultural pesticides on the emergence of clinical azole-resistant strains of Candida and Cryptococcus yeasts.

Principales références démontrant les impacts de l’utilisation de pesticides agricoles sur l’émergence de souches de levures Candida et Cryptococcus résistantes aux antifongiques cliniques azolés.

Reference Countries Yeasts Agricultural pesticides* Clinical azoles**
Brilhante et al. (2019) Brazil Candida parapsilosis complex Tebuconazole, tetraconazole Fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole
Chen et al. (2019) Taiwan Candida tropicalis ns Fluconazole
Faria-Ramos et al. (2014) Portugal Candida glabrata Prochloraz Fluconazole, posaconazole
Lo et al. (2017) Taiwan C. tropicalis Triadimenol Fluconazole
Müller et al. (2007) Germany Candida albicans Fluquinconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole, triadimenol Ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole
Potocki et al. (2020) Poland C. albicans, Candida pulcherrima, C. glabrata,C. tropicalis Epoxiconazole, acetamiprid, thiacloprid ns
Rocha et al. (2016) Brazil C. parapsilosis Tetraconazole Fluconazole
Yang et al. (2012) Taiwan C. tropicalis ns Fluconazole
Bastos et al. (2018) Brazil Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans Tebuconazole Fluconazole, itraconazole, ravuconazole
Bastos et al. (2019) Brazil C. gattii Pyraclostrobin Fluconazole, itraconazole, ravuconazole
Carneiro et al. (2020) Brazil C. gattii Benomyl Fluconazole

ns: not specified.


Molecules applied to crops in the environment.


Molecules in clinical use for which isolates found in the environment have been tested for sensitivity.

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