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Table 2

Main references demonstrating impacts of the use of agricultural azole fungicides in specific crops on the emergence of clinical azole-resistant strains of Aspergillus fumigatus.

Principales références démontrant les impacts de l’utilisation de fongicides agricoles azolés sur des cultures spécifiques, sur l’émergence de souches d’Aspergillus fumigatus résistantes aux antifongiques cliniques azolés.

References Countries Crops Agricultural azoles* Clinical azoles** Percent of resistance
Alvarez-Moreno et al. (2019) Colombia Carrots, potatoes, maize, strawberries, pea ns Itraconazole, voriconazole 25% of soil samples had resistant strains
Barber et al. (2020) Germany Wheat, barley Difenoconazole, tebuconazole Itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole 1–3% of agricultural isolates
Bromley et al. (2014) UK Wheat, barley, oilseed rape Prothioconazole, tebuconazole, cyproconazole, epoxiconazole Itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole 1.7% of rural isolates
Cao et al. (2021) China Rice Tebuconazole, difenoconazole, posaconazole, propiconazole, hexaconazole, prochloraz ns 2.4–20.0% of soil samples
Godeau et al. (2020) France Tulip ns Itraconazole, voriconazole 71% of soil samples around a clinical area
Kano et al. (2015) Japan Vegetables Tetraconazole Itraconazole 0%
Prigitano et al. (2014) Italy Apple, cucurbit ns Itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole 21% of environmental soil samples
Ren et al. (2017) China Vegetables, fruits Epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole, hexaconazole, metconazole Itraconazole, voriconazole 5.8% of soil samples from greenhouses
Rocchi et al. (2014) France Wheat, barley Epoxiconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole Itraconazole, voriconazole 0.7% of agricultural soil isolates
Rocchi et al. (2018) France Vegetables Difenoconazole Itraconazole, voriconazole 10% of market garden soil samples
Schoustra et al. (2019) The Netherlands Wheat, maize, fruits, flowers Azaconazole, bromuconazole, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole, flutriafole, metconazole, penconazole, propiconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, thiabendazole, cyazofamid, fenamidone, iprodione, triazoxide, imazalil, prochloraz Itraconazole na
Sharma et al. (2015) India, Romania, Tanzania Sunflower, flowers Bromuconazole, cyproconazole, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole, triadimefon Itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole 25% of soil and woody debris samples

ns: not specified; na: not applicable.


Molecules applied to crops in the environment.


Molecules in clinical use for which isolates found in the environment have been tested for sensitivity.

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