Summary of main external influences on the IPs.
|Political||Democratic system of governance and change of government by election (Jan. 2000, Jan. 2009); new District Chief Executives were appointed in 2010||Tuareg Rebellion in the North of Mali – Jan. 2012; Coup d'état on 22 March 2012 leading to political instability.||Democratic system of governance and change in government by election – March 2006 and March 2011.|
|Economic||Liberalized economy since 1983; agricultural subsidy policy; fluctuations of cocoa prices on world market 2010–2013; high palm oil price on world market in 2012; approval of premium pricing for organic cocoa in 2009||Suspension of economic programmes and freezing of development aid by US, Canada, EU in March 2012; increasing demand for shea on international market from 2011||Liberalised market; agricultural subsidy policy and provision of micro finance from 2011: rice imports flooded local market in 2011/2012.|
|Socio-cultural||Changes in resource use and labour dynamics–from gradual opening of the economy from 1980s onwards; influence of diverse local cultures on agricultural and natural resources; official tree tenure policy||Insecurity and social tension in 2012; drive for women's empowerment and cooperative re-organization from 2011 onwards||Drive towards greater gender balance in agricultural sector; women's groups became engaged in business of neem biopesticides from 2012.|
|Technological||CODAPEC in 2001; Hi-Tech in 2003 are government interventions to sustained promotion of technology adoption in farming e.g. of fertilizers, pesticides, improved crop varieties)||General emphasis on improved mechanization in agriculture; promotion of small dairy units from 2012||Re-investment in water management systems from 2012, R&D to improve existing rice varieties, and quality control in production of planting materials|
|Environmental||Increased environmental consciousness from 2010; rehabilitation of cocoa farms in 2012||Degradation of natural resources intensified from 2000 onwards||Promotion of ecological agriculture by use of biopesticides from 2012 onwards; increasing uptake of organic production|
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