Table 1

Summary of main external influences on the IPs.

Category Ghana Mali Benin
Political Democratic system of governance and change of government by election (Jan. 2000, Jan. 2009); new District Chief Executives were appointed in 2010 Tuareg Rebellion in the North of Mali – Jan. 2012; Coup d'état on 22 March 2012 leading to political instability. Democratic system of governance and change in government by election – March 2006 and March 2011.
Economic Liberalized economy since 1983; agricultural subsidy policy; fluctuations of cocoa prices on world market 2010–2013; high palm oil price on world market in 2012; approval of premium pricing for organic cocoa in 2009 Suspension of economic programmes and freezing of development aid by US, Canada, EU in March 2012; increasing demand for shea on international market from 2011 Liberalised market; agricultural subsidy policy and provision of micro finance from 2011: rice imports flooded local market in 2011/2012.
Socio-cultural Changes in resource use and labour dynamics–from gradual opening of the economy from 1980s onwards; influence of diverse local cultures on agricultural and natural resources; official tree tenure policy Insecurity and social tension in 2012; drive for women's empowerment and cooperative re-organization from 2011 onwards Drive towards greater gender balance in agricultural sector; women's groups became engaged in business of neem biopesticides from 2012.
Technological CODAPEC in 2001; Hi-Tech in 2003 are government interventions to sustained promotion of technology adoption in farming e.g. of fertilizers, pesticides, improved crop varieties) General emphasis on improved mechanization in agriculture; promotion of small dairy units from 2012 Re-investment in water management systems from 2012, R&D to improve existing rice varieties, and quality control in production of planting materials
Environmental Increased environmental consciousness from 2010; rehabilitation of cocoa farms in 2012 Degradation of natural resources intensified from 2000 onwards Promotion of ecological agriculture by use of biopesticides from 2012 onwards; increasing uptake of organic production

Source: Authors' construct, from analysis of TGPT data, January 2011–December 2014.

Notes: CODAPEC – National Cocoa Diseases and Pest Control; Hi-Tech Programme was designed to promote the use of fertilizer and improved seedlings.

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