Summary of main external influences on the IPs.
|Political||Democratic system of governance and change of government by election (Jan. 2000, Jan. 2009); new District Chief Executives were appointed in 2010||Tuareg Rebellion in the North of Mali – Jan. 2012; Coup d'état on 22 March 2012 leading to political instability.||Democratic system of governance and change in government by election – March 2006 and March 2011.|
|Economic||Liberalized economy since 1983; agricultural subsidy policy; fluctuations of cocoa prices on world market 2010–2013; high palm oil price on world market in 2012; approval of premium pricing for organic cocoa in 2009||Suspension of economic programmes and freezing of development aid by US, Canada, EU in March 2012; increasing demand for shea on international market from 2011||Liberalised market; agricultural subsidy policy and provision of micro finance from 2011: rice imports flooded local market in 2011/2012.|
|Socio-cultural||Changes in resource use and labour dynamics–from gradual opening of the economy from 1980s onwards; influence of diverse local cultures on agricultural and natural resources; official tree tenure policy||Insecurity and social tension in 2012; drive for women's empowerment and cooperative re-organization from 2011 onwards||Drive towards greater gender balance in agricultural sector; women's groups became engaged in business of neem biopesticides from 2012.|
|Technological||CODAPEC in 2001; Hi-Tech in 2003 are government interventions to sustained promotion of technology adoption in farming e.g. of fertilizers, pesticides, improved crop varieties)||General emphasis on improved mechanization in agriculture; promotion of small dairy units from 2012||Re-investment in water management systems from 2012, R&D to improve existing rice varieties, and quality control in production of planting materials|
|Environmental||Increased environmental consciousness from 2010; rehabilitation of cocoa farms in 2012||Degradation of natural resources intensified from 2000 onwards||Promotion of ecological agriculture by use of biopesticides from 2012 onwards; increasing uptake of organic production|
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.